Tanzania's Cooperation with the European Union (EU) can be traced back to the time of the country's independence. Recent cooperation dates back to 1975 when, as a member of the African, Caribbean and Pacific (ACP) Group of states, signed Lome I Convention covering the period 1975 - 1980. This was followed by Lome II (1980 - 1985), Lome III (1985 - 1990), Lome IV (1990-1995), Lome IV and Revised Lome IV (1995 - 2000). Succeeding Lome Conventions is the ACP-EU Partnership agreement (referred to as the Cotonou Agreement) signed in Cotonou, Benin on 23 June 2000 to cover a twenty year period (2000-2020); providing for revision after every five years. Thus since 1975 Tanzania through the ACP-EU accords has been a beneficiary of the various cooperation instruments with the EU which at various stages have included (i) trade and commodity protocols (ii) consultations/dialogue on governance issues (iii) development financial assistance channelled through the European Development Fund (EDF): from the fourth EDF (1975-1980) to the Tenth EDF (2008-2013). The EDF consists of several instruments, including grants, risk capital and loans to the private sector provided under the Investment Facility (IF). In addition to the EDF funds which are processed through National Envelopes, Regional Envelopes, Intra ACP Programmes and joint ACP-EU Institutions, developing countries benefit from EU contributions to global initiatives such as the Global Fund for Malaria, Tuberculosis and HIV/AIDS.
The EU is Tanzania's leading donor as well as trading partner in both exports and imports.
The expiry in December 2007 of the waiver granted by the World Trade organisation (WTO) on the Cotonou Trade Chapter that built on the previous ACP-EU conventions under which Tanzania and other ACP communities were accorded (non-reciprocal, tariff free) preferential market access for their export of goods to EU has been one of the basis of the ongoing negotiations for the new trading arrangements to be known as Economic Partnership Agreements (EPAs) between seven ACP configurations and the EU. The EPA shall be in full conformity with the provisions of WTO including special and differential treatment. The other basis for EPAs negotiations is the recognition that market access alone does not guarantee increased ACP exports to the EU and hence the full and comprehensive economic partnership agreements that address supply-side constraints in the ACP counties, build on the regional integration initiatives, ensure gradual and smooth integration of the ACP countries and economies into the global economy and promote the sustainable development of the ACP countries. Tanzania is negotiating the EPA under the configuration of the Common Market of the East Africa Community Partner States. The EAC Partner States are Tanzania, Kenya, Uganda, Rwanda and Burundi.
The Kingdom of Belgium
Tanzania maintains healthy bilateral relations with the Kingdom of Belgium. Tanzania is one of 25 partner countries with which Belgium has longstanding bilateral relationships. The bilateral cooperation activities are based on the Indicative Development Cooperation Programs (ICDP) which are jointly formulated by both parties. The ICDP is the result of a policy dialogue on the Tanzania Poverty Reduction Strategy Papers and fits into the country's National Social-Economic Development Strategy Plans (National Development Vision 2020, Tanzania Assistance Strategy).
The main sector priorities from a poverty perspective mentioned in the PRSP are developed in the different sector policies and strategies (health, education, HIV/AIDS, agricultural development, local government, legal sector and environment). The ICDP is also in line with the priorities of the Belgian International Co-operation aiming at sustainable human development through the fight against poverty, on the basis of the principle of "partnership" and taking into account the criteria of the relevance to development.
The guiding principles of this ICDP are geographical and sectoral concentration of the co-operation activities steered by a step-by-step approach aiming at real partnership and ownership by Tanzania population and taking into account the need for a strong donor co-ordination process led by Tanzania Government.
Belgium supports Tanzania in programs and projects to address poverty promote partnership between the people of the two countries, promote good governance etc. The focus of Belgium support in recent years has been the Primary education, Higher Education (scholarships for PHD and Masters Programs), health (HIV/AIDS programs), management of the environment and natural resources, District Development Programs, Promotion of Income Generation activities in poor Regions focusing on support of grass-roots initiatives for the creation of sustainable income, Justice and Good Governance, Transport (railways), Scholarships for PHD and Masters Programmes, water supply, gender mainstreaming, and telecommunication sector, private sector development, human and institutional capacity building, food security and rural development.
There is also indirect support through Belgian NGO's working with Tanzanian counterparts to implement various projects in agriculture, Vocational Training and strengthening of rural organisations and own initiatives through cooperation between Universities and Research Institutes.
A number of independent Belgium NGOs are involved in various development projects in various parts of Tanzania. Among these NGOs are (i) M/S Cushman & Wakefiled Schools Around the World which donated Euro 1.2mil for the construction of Miono High School in Bagamoyo (a co-Education, Boarding High School specializing in Science subjects); St. Charles Borromeo Catholic Nuns from Belgium who are running the St Francis School in Mbeya which has consistently excelled in National Exams.
Tanzania participates at the annual Brussels Holiday Show "Vacantiesalon van Brussels / Salon des vacances de Bruxelles".
The Grand Duchy of Luxembourg
Tanzania maintains excellent bilateral relations with the Grand Dutch of Luxembourg. Luxembourg has been assisting with several incomes generation projects. Additionally Luxembourg made with refugee programmes in the Great Lakes region. A number of Luxembourg NGOs are implementing development projects in Tanzania; presently a Luxembourg company M/S SOLARtec with government support is providing two solar plants to Tanzania, one to a village of 1500 inhabitants in Nyaikangha, Kagera region and the second one to a orphanage in Bunju, Dar es Salaam.
The city of Luxembourg, the capital and the largest city in the country is the headquarters of several institutions and agencies of the European Union such as the EU Statistical Office (EUROSTAT) and the Publications Office, the Court of Justice of the European Communities, the General Secretariat of the Parliament, the European Investment Bank (EIB), the Court of Auditors, the Nuclear Safety Administration and the Directorate of "Credits and Investments".
The World Customs Organisation (WCO) is based in Brussels. It is an intergovernmental organisation exclusively focused on customs administration matters. It is particularly noted for its work in areas covering the development of global standards, the simplification of international trade, the enhancement of customs enforcement and compliance activities, anti-counterfeiting and piracy initiatives, public-private partnerships, integrate promotion, and sustainable global customs capacity building programmes. The WCO also maintains the international Harmonized System goods nomenclature, and administers the technical aspects of the WTO Agreements on Customs Valuation and Rules of origin.
The Secretariat of the ACP Group is the administrative focal institution for the 79 member ACP Group of State. The ACP Group was formally established under the 1975 Georgetown Agreement. The ACP secretariat coordinates the work of the ACP Group in relation to ACP-EU Cooperation agreements and the ACP-EC Joint Institutions which include Joint Parliamentary Assembly, Joint Council of Ministers, Centre for the Development of Enterprise (CDE), Centre for Agriculture and Rural Development (CTA), Proinvest and various financing facilities and instruments funded by the European Development Fund (EDF).
The ACP Group's policy making organs include the Summit of ACP Heads of State and Government, Council of Ministers and Committee of Ambassadors (CoA).
In conducting its work the ACP Committee of Ambassadors has established six regional Sub-Committees: (i) Eastern Africa, (ii) Southern Africa, (iii) Central Africa, (iv) West Africa, (v) Caribbean and (vi) Pacific. There are also six Technical Sub-Committees namely: (1) Political Social Humanitarian and Cultural Affairs, (2) Trade and Commodity Protocols (3) Investment and the Private Sector (4) Sustainable Development (5) Finance and Development and (6) Establishment and Finance. www.acp.int